Objective: to validate the effect of plain kefir to immune response in streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia rats. Method: the experiment was using random design methodo logy to the pretest posttest control group of male and female in streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemia Wistar rats. Sample were divided randomly into four groups (1) insulin treated 0.76 UI/200 g body weight, (2) plain kefir 3.6 cc per day during 30 days, (3) positive control induced by STZ, (4) negative control normal group. Blood level were measured based on the full blood measurement from vena retroorbilitas 0.1 ml with microhematokrit in the first day (pretest) dan 30th day (posttest) with enzym atic methodology. Immune response sitokin (IL1, IL6, IL10, TNFa) were measured with ELISA. Data were managed with One Way Anova, Mann Whitney and Duncan in a significant level at (p < 0.05). Result: Kefir supplementation 3.6 cc per day had significantly effect on blood glucose sitokin proinflamasi (IL1, IL6, TNFa) and sitokin antiinflamasi (IL10). Statistical analysis showed glucose reduction 111, 00 + 44,23 ml (p<0,001) and sitokin proinflamasi IL1around 3,21 + 7,57 mU/mL (p<0,0018,62 + 23,59 and IL6 1) compare to control group. Though not significant, level of TNFa decreased 1,65 + 4,62 mU/mL, except control group. Conclusion: Kefir supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose, level of sitokin (IL1, IL6) and decreased level of TNFa, while l evel of IL10 increased if compare to control group.
Background: Macrophages play an important role as part of the innate immune response in the gut and they represent one of the first lines of nonspecific defense against bacterial invasion. Previous studies indicated that probiotics and prebiotics may act a s an immunomodulator agents. Nevertheless, research on the immunomodulatory effect of local materials has never been performed. Objective: To study the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 and sweet potato fiber on the activity and Nitric Oxide (NO) pr oduction of peritoneal macrophages of Sprague Dawley rats. Method: Ninety six Sprague Dawley rats aged 8 weeks were divided into two groups; A (not infected with Salmonella typhimurium) and B (infected with S. typhimurium). Each group was divided into 4 su bgroups and assigned to standard AIN plantarum Mut7 (PRO), modified AIN-- 93M diet (KON), 109 CFU/ml of L. 93M diet with sweet potato fiber (PRE), and both component (SIN). After 3 weeks of treatment, 6 rats of each subgroup were sacrificed and the peritonea l macrophages were isolated and analyzed for its activity and NO production. The rest of the rats continued the treatments for another 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, they were sacrificed and the peritoneal macrophage were isolated and analyzed for its activity and NO production. Results: Oral administration of L. plantarum Mut7, sweet potato fiber, or both improve phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage which was indicated by an increase in the percentage of macrophages that phagocyte latex pa rticles (p<0.05) and an increase in the number of latex particles engulfed by macrophages either after 3 or 5 weeks of treatment (p<0.05). Oral administration of L. plantarum Mut7, sweet potato fiber, or both were unable to increase the nitric oxide produc tion after 3 weeks of treatment (p>0.05), but after 5 weeks of treatment the production of NO was significantly increased (p<0.05). Conclusion: L. plantarum Mut7, sweet potato fiber, or both increase the non response as they could improve specific immune the activity and NO production of peritoneal macrophages.
Background: Oxidative stress triggers the function and structure of pancreatic β cell damage in hyperglycemia through lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines modulation and interleukin-10. The available therapy so far has not been reaching an optimal of the blood glucose control. Kefir’s bioactive have potential as a supplement therapy. This study was aimed at validating the effect of plain kefir on glycemic, antioxidants status, immune response and pancreatic β cell regeneration of hyperglycemia Wistar Strain Rats induced by Streptozotocin (STZ). Materials and Method: The randomized pretest - posttest control group study design was conducted in male hyperglycemia Wistar rats induced by 40 mg / kg body weight streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in 0,1 M buffer citrate pH 4,5. Rats were randomized into four groups, namely: (1) STZ-induced animals group and given insulin treatment UI/200 0.76 g bw, (2) STZ-induced animals group and given treatment plain kefir 3.6 cc/200 g bw/day for 30 days, (3) STZ-induced animals group (non-STZ induced) as a positive control (ad libitum), (4) normal animals group as a negative control (ad libitum). Blood glucose was measured by enzymatic method. Antioxidants status (SOD, GPX) were measured by ELISA. Catalase was measured by Spectrofometry. Lipid peroxide was measured MDA-TBARs by spectrofotometry. Immune response (cytokines IL1, IL6, TNF?, IL10) were measured by ELISA. Pancreatic histology was observed by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed by One Way Anova, Mann Whitney test, Duncan, Ancova with significance level p<0.05. Result: Plain kefir supplementation 3.6 cc / day affect significantly on blood glucose, antioxidants (SOD, Catalase, GPX), lipid peroxidation (MDA), and pancreatic β-cells regeneration. Statistical analysis showed respectively decrease of glucose (p<0.001), MDA (p<0.001), level of proinflamatory cytokines (IL1, IL6,) (p<0.001), except of controls. Antioxidant capacity showed increase of catalase, GPx (p<0.001) and SOD (p<0.05). Similarly, there was increased of IL10 (p<0.05) and the normal cells pancreatic β expression (p<0.001), except of control. TNFα was reduced. Ancova test showed MDA and IL10 were the most contributed to the pancreatic β cells regeneration by 91.0% and 9% determined by TNF-α, antioxidants, blood glucose, body weight. Probiotics kefir were found in as many as 106-109 cfu / mL and declined to 105 as the decrease in pH during storage. Conclusion and recommendation: Kefir supplementation about 3.6 cc/ day has significantly decreased (1) blood glucose, (2) lipid peroxide (MDA),(3) level of cytokines ( IL1, IL6) and (4) enhanced IL10 and (5) antioxidants capacity (SOD, Catalase, GPx) and (6) normal pancreatic β cell expression. Insulin and kefir descriptively reduced TNF α level. It is necessary to disclose underlying biomolecular mechanism and characterization of plain kefir probiotics before applying clinically to diabetic patients.